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El Cine: Arte o Negocio, Ambos o Ninguno

Lo primero que nos viene a la mente al escuchar sobre  cine seguramente son aquellos éxitos taquilleros que invaden las salas con una docena de funciones al día durante semanas hasta que llega el siguiente gran prospecto comercial, cada uno con masivas olas de publicidad precediéndole, bombardeándonos de anuncios y mercancía por todas partes. Seguramente la gran mayoría estamos al tanto o por lo menos nos hemos enterado cada vez que una película cruza el umbral del billón de dólares recaudados en taquilla, siempre anunciado con bombo y platillo porque después de todo de eso se trata, ¿no es así? Es un negocio como cualquier otro y el dinero es sinónimo de éxito.

Si bien es cierto que la industria cinematográfica es un negocio, no debemos olvidar que es también mucho más. Es el arte de contar una historia, de crear mundos nuevos nunca antes vistos, de cautivar a la audiencia con una nueva perspectiva que jamás se han imaginado o sorprenderlos con una amplia gama de emociones, desde la euforia hasta el terror, desde el suspenso hasta la catarsis. El cine no es solo el séptimo arte, es la culminación y combinación perfecta de todas las artes. ¿Cuántas ciudades imposibles de crear en el mundo real se han materializado en la pantalla grande? ¿Acaso no hay fotógrafos de cine que componen hermosos cuadros, dignos de ser exhibidos también en un museo? ¿No es la música parte del alma de una buena cinta? ¿No se han esculpido rostros de fascinantes bestias y maravillosas creaturas mediante la animación y los efectos prácticos? ¿No danzan una los personajes unos con otros en la obscuridad de la sala de cine en cada función? Ni hablar de la madre de todas las artes, la literatura, que dio pauta para el nacimiento del hermano mayor del cine moderno, el teatro.

Antes del auge que el cine ha alcanzado en nuestra vida cotidiana, antes de los grandes estudios y los titanes de la taquilla que tanto conocemos y adoramos, hubo un grupo de artistas que pusieron su fe en un invento llamado el cinematógrafo, precursor de lo que hoy conocemos como la cámara de video. A pesar de que pocos en su tiempo consideraban que aquel aparato fuera a lograr más que solo captar y documentar escenas de la vida diaria, estos artistas vieron una oportunidad para explorar el más versátil y maravilloso recurso humano: la imaginación. Con una visión y un talento inimaginable se crearon algunas de las piezas más icónicas de los inicios del cine. Obras como The Execution of Mary Stuart (1895) de Alfred Clark y Thomas Edison, Le Manoir du Diable (1896) y probablemente la más reconocida, A Trip to the Moon (1902), ambas de Georges Méliès, marcaron el inicio de una nueva era artística que ofrecía una capacidad de inmersión superior para la audiencia, un nuevo mundo de posibilidades que permitiría a los artistas por venir materializar sus más ambiciosas visiones de forma verdadera y pura.

Si bien eventualmente las garras del capitalismo se encajaron profundamente en la última de las bellas artes, creando el sistema moderno de grandes estudios comerciales dirigidos por empresas transnacionales, los mejores cineastas de nuestra época en su mayoría se han consagrado fuera del modelo comercial. Christopher Nolan, Quentin Tarantino, Andy Muschietti, Guillermo del Toro, Alfonso Cuarón y Alejandro G. Iñárritu son sólo algunos de los exponentes más aclamados a nivel mundial que tuvieron que ganar su lugar en el Olimpo que es Hollywood valiéndose de sus propios recursos y su incomparable creatividad. Sin obras como Memento (2000) o El Espinazo del Diablo (2001), ambas producidas de manera independiente por Nolan y del Toro respectivamente, sucesoras del calibre de The Dark Knight (2008) y The Shape of Water (2017), que son hoy en día estandartes galardonados de lo que significa ser una película taquillera, jamás habrían llegado a la pantalla grande. Sin Amores Perros (2000) no tendríamos a Birdman (2014). Sin Y tu Mamá también (2001) no tendríamos a Roma (2018). Sin el esfuerzo independiente de jóvenes artistas que nacen y se desarrollan fuera del modelo de cine comercial no existiría el cine comercial para empezar.

¿Cuántos artistas se pierden en el anonimato a falta de un verdadero apoyo a las artes en nuestro país? Quizá nunca lo sabremos. Sólo nos queda esperar, rogar que puedan perseverar, que se animen a seguir contando sus historias a pesar de las trabas, de los limitados recursos con los que puedan llegar a contar, del continuo favoritismo a refritos y estereotipos que infecta a nuestra industria año tras año. También nos toca apoyar a nuestros hijos, familiares, amigos y conocidos. Nos toca apoyarlos, sea compartiendo sus obras por más sencillas que puedan llegar a ser, sea ofreciéndoles una crítica constructiva para que puedan afinar y pulir su talento, sea aportando con lo que nos sea posible a las recaudaciones de fondos para su siguiente proyecto, pues tampoco sabemos quién entre nosotros podría ser el próximo gran artista de nuestra era.

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